The pyramid of Djoser was built in the Saqqara cemetery northwest of the ancient city of Memphis, in order to bury King Djoser, the second king of the 3rd Pharaonic Dynasty in the Old Kingdom.
The idea of constructing the step pyramid of Djoser goes back to the engineer and doctor “Amhotep”, known in ancient Egypt as the engineer of the funerary group in the pyramids of Giza. Amhotep used to work as a minister for King Djoser and built the pyramid for him.
The pyramid of Djoser is distinguished by its distinctive architecture in the form of terraces and terraces, and is the oldest huge stone building in history, and Djoser and his pyramid have remained different in the history of ancient Egypt despite the construction of dozens of pyramids in the Giza region.
Inside the Twain Papyrus, the name of Djoser, the second king in the Third Pharaonic Dynasty, was recorded in red, as an indication of the distinction of this king, who ruled for about 29 years, and the Egyptian state at that time was known for the stability and prosperity of construction during his reign (2640-2611 BC).
Architect Amhotep excelled in designing the largest stone building in history, with an estimated height of about 62 m and 6 terraces built on top of each other, and the base of the pyramid was estimated at 109 meters by 125 meters, and the old engineer mastered the design of a large trench 40 meters wide and 750 meters high surrounding the pyramid.
The construction process included the construction of royal tombs, a funerary temple, and a group of basements dedicated to allocating food and crops for their time.
The pyramid of Djoser is a different model in design from the pyramids of Giza, which is an advanced stage in the design of tombs consisting of a single mastaba to a pyramid consisting of 6 terraces built on top of each other.
In 1821, the Italian engineer, Gerolano Segato, discovered the entrance to the pyramid of Djoser and its passages, and at that time found the remains of the mummy of King Djoser from a skull and a shattered foot, after the removal of dust and sand from the top of the pyramid.
And recently, the Egyptian antiquities began restoring the pyramid, and it included restoration work for the Djoser pyramid, beginning with documentation of all the pyramid units and the southern cemetery, careful engineering restoration and development of the southern, western, northern and eastern façades, in addition to repairing walls, columns and corridors, removing debris and cleaning corridors to treat cracks and cracks inside and outside the pyramid.