On the eleventh of January of the year 2010, archaeologists reached one of the most important discoveries of tombs in Egypt, it belonged to the workers who built the pyramids more than four thousand years ago, which means that there is conclusive evidence that the people who built the pyramids were not slaves, Rather, they were wage workers, as those tombs, which were built from mud during the fourth Pharaonic family, contained vessels of beer and bread for the next life.
According to the head of the mission, the Egyptologist Dr. Zahi Hawass, they were built next to the pyramids of the Kings, which means that these people did not They were slaves, but free Egyptians, and their role was of sacred importance, until they were buried next to the pyramid, which indicates that the work in building the pyramids is an honor and a great national and religious task in the hearts of the builders.
In his book “The Pyramids Builders”, Dr. Zahi revealed that great secret, and how Egypt was a country filled with a large number of genius engineers who carried out those timeless architectural works that astonished the world since its construction, and continues to amaze the whole world until now, and since it was discovered The cemetery of the pyramids builders, after a search and excavation that lasted nearly 16 years, it was confirmed that those tombs were buried in which Egyptians who were workers, peasants and employees made for us this great civilization.
As for the cemetery of the pyramids builders, it was found after the foot of one of the horses carrying a tourist who was wandering near the pyramid stumbled on the wall of the tomb of Mr. “Ptah Shebsu”, a senior worker, in the southeast of the Sphinx, and behind a stone wall built by King Khufu, He called it the Raven Wall. It was built by King Khufu, 10 meters high and 200 meters long, with a gate in its center, and it is the place where the workers who participated in building the hierarchical groups of Khafre “2555-2532” BC, and Menkaure “2532 – 2503” BC, lived and died. In addition to the oldest residential remains dating back to the reign of Khufu “2525-2566” BC.
The cemetery contains in its general planning a large open courtyard, built of mud bricks, and it was a miniature city, containing houses, stores, three main streets and a royal administrative building, as well as four huge halls, which archaeologists believe are barracks where workers used to sleep the pyramids builders and counted They contained their food, as huge quantities of fish, birds, cows, sheep, goats and pigs bones were found inside them, which reveals the extent to which the state sponsors the workers of the pyramids builders, in order to ensure the best return in the efficiency of work.
As for the descriptions of the tombs, which indicate that they are Egyptians and not slaves, whether in physical descriptions, names, construction method, and doctrinal burial method, the burial took place in the east direction to receive the god Ra, the sun god in a squatting position, and the tombs were classified according to the functional degree To two levels, the lower level was for the workers, whose cemeteries were small, while the large tombs were for chiefs and senior workers. The second level was built of stone and reserved for artists, sculptors and painters, who are the upper and upper class, and among those cemeteries is the cemetery of “Ny Ankh Ptah”, which is one of the most important The rocky tombs in the upper cemetery, one of the most important components of this cemetery is the ascending path that leads to the lower cemetery. The road is constructed of uneven limestone, and its width is about 110 cm.
These tombs were not the evidence that the pyramids were not built by slaves at all, but the inscriptions that were found, the texts of the curse of those who enter those tombs were another evidence, as was found in the tomb of “Betti” and his wife, who says: “The god is Hathor. Whoever enters and tamperes with the contents of the cemetery will eat, and God will protect the owner of the cemetery, because he is revered by God, and God will not join my body for any harm. Anyone who treats the cemetery will be eaten by crocodiles, hippos and lions, ”which means that the worker in the tomb was not a slave But he is a free Egyptian, as revealed by the statues found in the tombs of the upper and lower levels, in which the analogy is close to two sons of the same father and mother, but one of them lived as a farmer or worker, and the other learned in the city and became the owner of a center, which is the same image that we see today for the Egyptians.
The lower cemetery included more than 600 small cemeteries, built of mud bricks, with fake doors, or a rectangular block of stone, engraved in the form of a door with two sashes, in the middle of which is a braided mat, below which the worker is buried in a squatting position, as well as large tombs Perhaps it was dedicated to the chiefs of workers, and these cemeteries have taken different architectural forms, each with an area of half a meter, and domed graves cover burial wells under the surface of the earth, which makes the cemetery take a shape similar to a pyramid, and here the question remains: How did they live ?, and where?
The American archaeologist Mark Linner revealed the remains of the walls of the walls constructed from small blocks of limestone similar to those surrounding the pyramids. Twelve rooms built of mud bricks were found inside them, and two large pottery jars were found in two parallel rooms, and it was confirmed that these rooms They are nothing but the oldest international bakeries, as the gaps were found in a shallow trench full of straw and coals, and small and large vessels that were filled with dough to make bread. They were found on the northeastern side, which we know in the country now as “Majour”, and a stove for a bug was used to heat the dough in the trench. In addition to large numbers of authentic Egyptian bread, such as the sunbread known in the Egyptian countryside today.